‘Petroleum and natural gas are abundant in Texas and Oklahoma. Louisiana, Kansas, Arkansas, and Wyoming also have large producing wells. It has been estimated that the southern United States, west of the Mississippi, contain more than 5,000,000,000 barrels of oil, the largest known deposit.
‘Petroleum was discovered in western Pennsylvania in 1859. New fields were opened in Ohio, West Virginia, and Kentucky. Natural gas fields were found in Illinois and Indiana. So rapid has been the production from these fields, that it is thought that one-half the known oil reserves of the United States have already been used. At the present rate of production, 700,000,000 barrels annually, the next thirty years may see the exhaustion of this wonderful fuel.
‘Pipe lines have been built across the continent from the Texas field, through Illinois and Ohio to Pennsylvania and New York, where the great refineries are located. The distribution of this liquid fuel is one of the marvels of the twentieth century, and has aided greatly in the industrial expansion of this section of the United States.’
from: A World Geography for Canadian Schools; Denton and Lord; 1937-1948; JM Dent and Sons.
The red entrenched positions of the armies are shown.
The yellow line represents the position of the front line at the time of the Armistice. The German ‘Operation Michael’ was a last-gasp storm troop-style effort which overwhelmed the Allies near the end of the war - pushing the lines to the west before running out of steam.
Etricourt and Velu can be seen south-west of Cambrai.
Roads are brown.
Main railway lines are black/white dashed while branchlines are black lines.
from: The Citizen’s Atlas of the World; John Bartholomew; 1924; Geographical Institute, Edinburgh.
Arctic Summer Conditions, Favourable Year, circa 1960
As always, please pardon my gutter - if I tried to ‘fix’ this it would only be more annoying. My hope is that climate history enthusiasts might find this interesting …
‘The winter ice pattern remains fairly constant in all years, but the state of the ice during summer may vary considerably from one season to another. The most favourable conditions occur in the south and east where the one-year ice cover of such areas as Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait, or the moving, locally-formed pack of Davis Strait and Baffin Bay may usually be counted on to clear in the course of the summer. The most unfavourable conditions are found in the northwest, where the ice extending northeastwards from the northern shores of Prince Patrick and Melville islands to the eastern coasts of Meighen and Perley islands, may loosen slightly but is never known to clear.
‘Favourable conditions do not occur in all the Arctic channels simultaneously as much of the ice clears by moving out of its winter areas rather than by melting in situ. In general, this movement is towards the south and east, and as one area clears, the neighbouring channels become choked by its outgoing floes. Thus for example, the ice from Hudson Bay and Foxe Basin may block Hudson Strait long after its own local ice has disappeared. Conversely, in such areas as Baffin Bay, seasons with practically ice-free waters may result when the ice in Kane Basin fails to break up and the heavy pack from the Lincoln Sea, and icebergs from the Petermann and Humboldt glaciers, are thus prevented from passing south.
‘Variations in wind and weather and the movement of ice from one locality to another make it inevitable that optimum conditions cannot occur simultaneously in all parts of such a vast region. The figure [above] suggests the best conditions likely to prevail in the various sections in light ice years.’
from: Pilot of Arctic Canada, Vol 1; Canadian Hydrographic Service, Surveys and Mapping Branch, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa; 1959; Queen’s Printer and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa.